There are two distinct building materials called "bluestone" in Australia. In Victoria, what is known as bluestone is a basalt or olivine basalt. It was one of the favoured building materials during the Victorian Gold Rush period of the 1850s. Bluestone is very hard and therefore difficult to work, so it was predominantly used for warehouses, miscellaneous walls, and the foundations of buildings.
Bluestone was also used extensively as cobblestone, and for kerbs and gutters, many examples which still exist in some of Melbourne's smaller city lanes and 19th Century inner suburban lanes. Crushed bluestone aggregate, known as bluemetal, is still used extensively in Victoria as railway ballast, road base, and, combined with bitumen, as road surfacing material, as well as in concrete making.